You generally light transparent objects from behind.
In shooting a medical product for a client, this was made difficult by some additional factors: the object was small, it had a texture, and it was to be held with gloved hands, showing tensile strength.
This wasn’t a selected image but shows the nature of the product:
The solution I employed was to use a small shooting table such that a model could wrap hands around it, allowing the translucent rear of the table to be lit from behind, which in turn provided the back illumination for the object. I also lit from above to create dimension to the gloves and add a highlight to the product (showing its glossy nature).
The background could also not be pure white. If I was shooting glass, then a variation of a light field or a dark field approach would be a beginning point. It was for this, too, although the size of the object coupled with such a large opaque “prop” mitigated these techniques. I instead chose to go slightly grey and use the highlight to define the object.
The solution turned out to be relatively simple – once I found it.